18 июня, 2024

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НАСА опубликовало новую карту предстоящего солнечного затмения

НАСА опубликовало новую карту предстоящего солнечного затмения

Внешний вид Луны во время полного лунного затмения в ноябре 2022 года. НАСА выпустило новую карту с подробным описанием солнечных затмений в 2023 и 2024 годах в США. Предоставлено: Студия научной визуализации НАСА.

Где будут солнечные затмения в 2023 и 2024 годах в США?

Based on observations from several NASA missions, the map details the path of the Moon’s shadow as it crosses the contiguous U.S. during the annular solar eclipse on October 14, 2023, and total solar eclipse on April 8, 2024.

2023 and 2024 Solar Eclipses Map

Using observations from different NASA missions, this map shows where the Moon’s shadow will cross the U.S. during the 2023 annular solar eclipse and 2024 total solar eclipse. The map was developed by NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS) in collaboration with the NASA Heliophysics Activation Team (NASA HEAT), part of NASA’s Science Activation portfolio. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

These dark paths across the continent show where observers will need to be to see the “ring of fire” when the Moon blocks all but the outer edge of the Sun during the annular eclipse, and the ghostly-white outer atmosphere of the Sun (the corona) when the Moon completely blocks the Sun’s disk during the total eclipse.

Outside those paths, the map also shows where and how much the Sun will be partially eclipsed by the Moon. On both dates, all 48 contiguous states in the U.S. will experience at least a partial solar eclipse (as will Mexico and most of Canada).

Reading the Map

On NASA’s new eclipse map, the paths for the annular eclipse and total eclipse appear as dark bands across the U.S.

Anyone located in the annular eclipse path, from Oregon to Texas, will have a chance to see the annular eclipse if the skies are clear. Anyone located in the total eclipse path, from Texas to Maine, will have a chance to see the total eclipse, weather permitting.

Solar Eclipses Texas Near San Antonio

An area of Texas near San Antonio, where the two eclipse paths cross, will experience both the annular eclipse in 2023 and the total eclipse in 2024. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Inside those dark paths are oval shapes with times inside them (yellow ovals for the annular eclipse, purple ovals for the total eclipse). Those ovals show the shape of the Moon’s shadow cast on Earth’s surface at the times shown. People in the areas inside the ovals will see the annular eclipse or total eclipse at that time.

Eclipse Moon's Shadow Moves Quickly

The Moon’s shadow will move quickly during both eclipses. On the map, ovals within the eclipse paths show the location and shape of the shadow at different times. For example, during the total eclipse on April 8, 2024, the Moon’s shadow will be over Dayton, Ohio, at 3:10 p.m. EDT, but by 3:20 p.m. EDT it will have moved to Buffalo, New York. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

For locations close to the center of the paths, the annular eclipse or total eclipse will last longer than those near the outer edges of the path. Inside each path are white lines that indicate how long annularity or totality will last. For the annular eclipse path, you can find labels (ranging from 3 to 4.5 minutes) near the Nevada-Utah border in the north and between San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas, in the south. For the total eclipse path, you can find labels near Presque Isle, Maine, in the north, and between the 2:20 and 2:25 p.m. CST ovals in Mexico in the south.

Eclipse Path Utah

The closer to the center of the eclipse path, the longer each eclipse will last. On the map, each eclipse path includes white lines that indicate how long that eclipse will last at different locations. For example, the annular phase of the eclipse will last about four minutes near Elko, Nevada, and about four and a half minutes near Richfield, Utah. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Viewers in locations outside the paths will not experience a total solar eclipse or annular eclipse, but they may still see a partial eclipse. Lines running parallel to each path indicate how much of the Sun will become covered by the Moon during the partial eclipse. For the annular eclipse, these lines appear faint yellow. For the total eclipse, they’re faint purple. Percentage labels for the annular eclipse lines appear along the left and top edges of the map. The percentage labels for the total eclipse appear along the bottom and right edges of the map. (Tip: The percentages appear at the same angles as the lines.)

2024 Total Solar Eclipse Path

Outside of the eclipse paths, purple and yellow lines on the map show the percentage of the Sun that will become covered by the Moon at different locations for the total and annular eclipses, respectively. For example, the purple line that passes near New York City and Providence, Rhode Island, indicates that the Sun will become about 90 percent obscured in those cities during the peak of the eclipse on April 8, 2024. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Neither eclipse will be contained to the contiguous U.S., though. In the lower right corner of the NASA map, a globe shows the full paths for both eclipses. The annular eclipse (in yellow and black) extends into Mexico, Central America, and South America. The total eclipse (in purple and black) also crosses Mexico and northeastern Canada. Shaded bands (yellow for the annular eclipse and purple for the total eclipse) also show where a partial eclipse can be seen. For example, in October 2023, southeastern Alaska will experience a partial eclipse, while Hawaii will have a chance to see a partial eclipse in April 2024.

Making the Map

Michala Garrison, a member of the Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS) at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, applied her background in geography and cartography to design the map, incorporating information from a variety of NASA sources.

Earth elevation information came from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, while maps of the Moon’s shape were supplied by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The positions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth were found using software and data from NASA’s Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility. Garrison’s SVS colleague, Ernie Wright, used all of this information to calculate the location and shape of the Moon’s shadow.

NASA Full Globe Eclipse Map

The NASA map includes a globe showing the full paths of the 2023 annular eclipse (in yellow and black) and the 2024 total eclipse (in purple and black). Shaded bands (yellow for the annular eclipse and purple for the total eclipse) also show where a partial eclipse can be seen. Credit: NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio/Michala Garrison; eclipse calculations by Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA’s Blue Marble – a global mosaic of satellite images assembled by the NASA Earth Observatory team – provided color for the land. And one particularly unique feature Garrison thought to add along the path of the 2024 total eclipse was nighttime imagery of Earth from NASA’s Black Marble – which shows city lights on the night side of the planet as imaged by the Suomi NPP spacecraft.

One of Garrison’s goals for the map was to inspire people to get to the paths of the annular and total eclipses, which she didn’t do the last time the Moon’s shadow crossed the continental U.S.

Два солнечных затмения пройдут через Соединенные Штаты в 2023 и 2024 годах. 14 октября 2023 года кольцеобразное солнечное затмение создаст «огненное кольцо» в небе от Орегона до Техаса. 8 апреля 2024 года полное солнечное затмение затемнит небо от Техаса до Мэна. В обе даты все 48 смежных штатов США увидят частичное солнечное затмение. На карте, составленной с использованием данных из различных источников НАСА, оба следа затмения показаны в виде темных полос. За пределами этих путей желтые и фиолетовые линии показывают, насколько Луна будет загораживаться от Солнца во время частичного затмения. В этом видео увеличены различные части карты, показаны эти и другие особенности, которые описывают, что наблюдатели по всей стране могут ожидать во время каждого затмения.

«В 2017 году я была в Мэриленде, поэтому мне нужно было немного увидеть, потому что я была на частичном затмении», — сказала она. «Но тогда я ничего об этом не знал. Это заставляет меня хотеть поехать, скажем, в Альбукерке в 2023 году. А затем в 2024 году отправиться южнее».

Гаррисон проработал несколько изменений, чтобы попытаться сделать карту одновременно эстетичной и функциональной, чтобы помочь людям как на тропах, так и за их пределами спланировать свои впечатления от затмения.

«Это потребовало много проб и ошибок. Я хотел, чтобы это было полезно читателю, но не перегружало — и все же это был отличный продукт, на который можно было бы обратить внимание, чтобы привлечь внимание людей».

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